Thursday, May 21, 2020

Herbal Anti Cancer Medicine The Vinca Alkaloids Isolated...

The first herbal anti-cancer medicine was the vinca alkaloids isolated from the Madagascar periwinkle plant, Catharanthus roseus. Extracts from this plant was found to have therapeutic anti-tumour activity and clinically began being used as Vinblastine and Vincristine in 1960. [2] The mechanism of Vinca Alkaloids is the inhibition of microtubules. The drug prevents the alignment of daughter chromosomes by depolymerizing the tubulin molecules inhibiting the formation of spindle fibres ultimately causing mitosis arrest and killing dividing cells. [3] This class of drug is at danger due to resistance mechanisms via the over expression of multi-drug associated p-glycoprotein which acts as an efflux pump to remove the drug out of the cell. [5] Resistance has led to the development of second generation Vinca Alkoids – Vinorelbine and Vinflunine. these drugs disrupt microtubule formation by alternate methods compared to the older generation hence prolonging multi-drug resistance and anti-angiogenesis which prevents new blood vessels forming to the tumour. From clinical studies Vinorelbine is approved for treatment of Non-small cell lung cancer, (Gregory et al. 2000) over 15 trials with Vinorelbine as monotherapy has produced an overall response rate of 23.6% increasing patient’s survival. A phase 3 trial from an Italian study in 1999 (The Elderly Lung Cancer, Vinorelbine) found that ‘monotherapy vinorelbine seemed reasonable in the elderly whom polychemotherapy is not possible’.Show MoreRelatedHerbal medicin e is the traditional medical practice and it’s an important part of medicine to this1200 Words   |  5 PagesHerbal medicine is the traditional medical practice and it’s an important part of medicine to this day. To treat different ailments there are various indigenous systems such as Siddha, Ayurveda, Unani and Allopathy use differnt plant species1. Allopathic medicine is a system of medicine that focuses primarily on reacting disease rather than on promoting health. The use of herbal medicine is popular due to toxicity and side effects of allopathic medicines. Cancer is presently responsible for about

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Means Whereby IT Managers as Purchasing Agents...

Table of Contents Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...........4 Decision Ethics The Means Whereby IT Managers as Purchasing Agents Participate in Fraudulent Activities †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦..†¦...5 Recommendations For Measures or Actions That Chief Information Officers (CIOs) or Chief Technology Officers (CTOs) Might Mandate to Reduce Fraud and Other Unethical Practices While Protecting the Reputation of the Organization and the Infrastructures of Computer Systems †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦.7 How These Measures Would be Useful and Reduce the Amount of Fraudulent Activities..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦......†¦........9 Conclusion ..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦........10 References †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦........11 Introduction It is challenging to acquire strategic information technology (IT) alliances properly. Devoid of appropriate outsourcing methods, the threat of occupational fraud escalates (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners [ACFE], 2006). Nevertheless, companies employ outsourcing for several strategic motivations (Bass, 2013). Outsourcing assists businesses to concentrate on core-competencies, increase performance, diminish capital investment expenses, and realize increased revenues (Ghodeswar Vaidyanathan, 2008). Any form of fraud or corruption in the selection or management of outsourcing arrangements is inefficacious (ACFE, 2006). Corruption schemes such as conflicts of interest,Show MoreRelatedInformation Technology Manager Acting As A Purchasing Agent1648 Words   |  7 PagesThe purpose of the study was to identify the means whereby a given organization’s Information Technology manager acting as a purchasing agent, participates in fraudulent activities, including obtainin g kickbacks from vendors. This study examined measures and actions that chief information officers or chief technology officers might mandate to reduce fraud or other unethical practices while protecting the reputation of the organization, and the infrastructure of the computer systems. The resultsRead MoreEvaluating Unethical Decision Consequences Of An Organization1732 Words   |  7 PagesEvaluating Unethical Decision Consequences This paper provides an identification of potential means whereby Information Technology (IT) managers, acting on the organization’s behalf as purchase agents with IT vendors, participate in fraudulent activities. Further included are a series of recommendations for measures and actions that chief information officers or chief technology officers should consider as mandates to reduce fraud and other unethical practices while protecting the reputation ofRead MoreManagement Antifraud Programs and Controls7356 Words   |  30 PagesMANAGEMENT ANTIFRAUD PROGRAMS AND CONTROLS Guidance to Help Prevent and Deter Fraud PREFACE Some organizations have significantly lower levels of misappropriation of assets and are less susceptible to fraudulent financial reporting than other organizations because these organizations take proactive steps to prevent or deter fraud. It is only those organizations that seriously consider fraud risks and take proactive steps to create the right kind of climate to reduce its occurrence thatRead MoreAccounting Information System Chapter 1137115 Words   |  549 Pagesprivate organization. Examples include the tax reports required by the IRS and disclosure requirements for financial reporting. 1.2 Can the characteristics of useful information listed in Table 1-1 be met simultaneously? Or does achieving one mean sacrificing another? Several of the criteria in Table 1.1 can be met simultaneously. For example, more timely information is also likely to be more relevant. Verifiable information is likely to be more reliable. However, achieving one objectiveRead MoreAccounting Information Systems Test Bank 10th Edition41120 Words   |  165 Pagescomposed of two types of activities known as a) primary and support. b) primary and secondary. c) support and value. d) technology and support. 36. Which of the following is a primary activity in the value chain? a) infrastructure b) technology c) purchasing d) marketing and sales 37. In value chain analysis, what is the activity of arranging the delivery of products to customers called? a) outbound logistics b) inbound logistics c) shipping d) delivery 38. An AIS provides value by a) improving productsRead MoreInternal Revenue Code 1939278050 Words   |  1113 Pagesembodying that codification, H. R. 2762, was introduced on January 18, 1939, by Mr. Doughton, of North Carolina, chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and vice chairman of the Joint Committee on Internal Revenue Taxation. Mr. Doughton submitted the unanimously favorable report of the Committee on Ways and Means on January 20. Unanimous consent for consideration of the bill was requested and objected to on January 23. It was called up on the following CalendarRead MoreAuditing Cases22626 Words   |  91 PagesReporting of Revenues and Key Financial Measures,† March 2003, prepublication draft (~.ruf.rice.edu/—bala/files/dharan-bufkins_ enronjed_flagsS4l 003.pdfl, p. 4. 1 2 177 178 Section Six Comprehensive Company Cases long-term â€Å"take or pay† contracts, whereby they paid for minimum volumes in the future at prearranged prices to protect against supply shortages. In early 1986 ]lnron reported a loss of $14 million for its first year. As a result, the company employed a series of cost-cutting measures, includingRead MoreProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words   |  860 PagesWiley Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through paymentRead MoreBanking Laws and Jurisprudence Reviewer41247 Words   |  165 Pagesreach to the people the credit facilities at reasonable cost †¢ Includes: (1) savings and mortgage bank, (2) stock savings and loan associations and (3) private development banks †¢ Thrift Banks Act (RA 7906) 1. Negligence of Manager – employer is liable to the acts of the manager 2. Negligence of officer – general rule: tortious acts of officers within their scope of employment shall make banks liable 3. Negligence of tellers – tellers must exercise high degree of diligence †¢ Teller should not giveRead MoreManagement Control Systems Pdf115000 Words   |  460 Pagess of 09 ï›™ The Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India, January 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise – without prior permission in writing from Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India. Fo ISBN 81-7881-995-3 Ref. No. PMCS/A 01 2K6 31 For any clarification regarding this book, the

Leadership Principle of Jesus Free Essays

Principles of Leadership What is leadership? Leadership is the ability to obtain followers. Leadership is influence. You are a leader to the extent that people are following you. We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership Principle of Jesus or any similar topic only for you Order Now Why is leadership important? Leadership is important because it influences the destiny of people. Leadership also determines, to a large extent, what a group of people will be able to achieve. Leadership moves people towards common goals, principles and values. Good leadership enables people to work together well, and realize their potential. Poor leadership frustrates both people and projects. Poor leadership results in people being hurt. Good leadership results in strong people and excellent results. These comments apply to every area of life and human endeavour. Who Can be a Leader? Anyone who can act can be a leader – however, some have greater leadership potential than others essay writer pay. Not everyone can be a great leader, but everyone can be a better leader. The multiplication of leadership is the key to the multiplication of a movement. The communists knew this, and had as a motto, â€Å"Every communist a leader†. People have different personality types and styles of relating. Being a leader does not depend on having a particular personality type or style of relating. Neither does leadership exclusively depend on having a particular technical ability or giftedness. A good leader without certain skills or gifts can lead people possessing those abilities. A great leader can gather around them others who are very gifted and capable in particular areas. Both men and women can lead, although it is a fact that there are more male leaders in the world than female, and this will probably continue into the next century also. On the other hand, for every man that ever was, there was a mother, and the leadership influence of mothers over their own children can hardly be over-estimated. How Does Leadership Happen? Leadership happens in two ways. The most common way is that a faithful follower is promoted to a greater position of influence within an organisation, and thereby takes responsibility to lead people in their group or division. The other way leadership happens is when an individual gets passionately interested in doing something, starts doing it alone, and finds others who want to join in. A leader must lead. There is no leadership without action. There must be both action and communication. What Qualities make a Better Leader? A good leader leads by example. The greatest authority in leadership is reserved for those who have have done themselves the things they seek to motivate others to do. A positive attitude is very important. Leadership is not possible without advocating something. Criticism of others behind their backs is not leadership. A leader must show a better way, mostly by example. People what to be part of a winning team. A good leader must be positive even in the face of setbacks, so that people will not be discouraged and give up. This requires the quality of steadfastness and endurance. A good leader is self-disciplined. A good leader can sacrifice his or her present comfort for future benefits, and in this way inspires others to do the same. A good leader manages his or her time well. A good leader knows and studies people. A good leader is a good listener, and also observes the body language and non-verbal communication of others. A good leader waits before speaking, and does not promise quickly. A good leader is in touch with the needs, hopes, aspirations and desires of others. A good leader considers others, and seeks to do things that benefit everyone involved. A good leader is prepared to change and skilled in preparing others to embrace change. A good leader encourages dissatisfied people in the organisation to work together to find a solution. A good leader is willing to learn from others. A good leader also invests considerable time in self-education – by reading books, listening to tapes or attending seminars. A good leader has personal integrity and works hard to develop this quality. Integrity means keeping one’s word, and dealing truly with others. People do not like being let down by the broken promises of those in authority over them. A good leader will avoid resorting to tactics of manipulation. A good leader is highly motivated to achieve results, and therefore diligent. A good leader nevertheless is patient and slow to anger. A good leader is faithful to others and inspires loyalty and team spirit in his or her followers. A good leader enjoys other people and doesn’t overly dwell on their weaknesses. A good leader invests in others and empowers others to achieve and to become leaders themselves, without being threatened. A good leader seeks models the attitude and practice of service towards others. Biblical Examples of Leadership Jesus Christ modelled all of the above characteristics. In seeking to lead people to God the Father, Jesus himself demonstrated the power of a relationship with God through prayer. He modelled faith for his disciples to observe, showing to them and later declaring to them the power of faith (see Mark 11:22-24). Jesus modelled love, self-discipline, integrity and righteousness. Not even his enemies could convict him of sin. They could only point out where he violated their own traditions and interpretations – such as his healing of people on the Sabbath. Jesus ultimately gave His life for his followers. The great miracle was that He got in back through his resurrection from the dead. Jesus was positive and cheerful. He said to his disciples, â€Å"that my joy may be in you, and your joy may be complete†. Even though he had many things to correct, he did so in a wise way. Jesus believed that his work would be accomplished, and entrusted part of it to his disciples, whom he trained. Later he left his disciples the task of reaching the world. Jesus was self-disciplined. He often prayed through the night. Once He fasted forty days. All these things were preparation for His ministry. Jesus could perceive the inner thoughts of others, even his enemies. He knew things about his disciples, even beyond what a man could know through the power of observation alone. Jesus did not waste His words. Jesus gave himself to serve the needs of the people by healing their sick, feeding them when they were hungry, giving them a true hope concerning the kingdom of God, and setting them free from evil, sin and demons by the power of His Word and the Holy Spirit. Jesus made disciples and developed others who could continue His ministry after He left the earth. Jesus demonstrated both nobility and compassion in his dealings with people. Multitudes followed him, yet he invested in relatively few so that the quality of his mission could continue for longer. Jesus demonstrated a humility and servant attitude that is unparalleled, considering his divine origin. Many other things could be pointed out from the life of Jesus that illustrate leadership. It is true that Jesus’ style of leadership was and is very different to much of the leadership of today. Yet His life has produced enduring moral results which have lifted so many to a better life and some to life eternal. How to cite Leadership Principle of Jesus, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Oligopoly

Oligopoly is a type of market structure that has few companies but with huge capital bases. ‘Few firms’ in this case are taken to mean that the activities of one firm are largely influenced by the activities of the rest of the firms in the industry. In other words, interdependence is eminent. Should one firm, for instance, decide to change the price or make any other fundamental decision, others will follow suit.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Oligopoly specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such examples would include the print media such as the Newspaper Industry. All companies would decide to charge same prices not because of their individual choices but because of the demands of the market. Readership (sales) in this case will depend on factors other than the price, such as the efficiency of distribution channels (accessibility), quality of the content, subscription and publicity. These facto rs are popular referred to as non- price aspects of competition. Cost Revenue Equilibrium in Oligopoly Any rational firm in an oligopolistic market cannot increase the price above P because it knows very well (perfect knowledge) that it would be pricing itself out of the market, since other firms in the industry will most probably keep their prices stable at P and therefore having a high relative demand. The objective demand is represented by d2. K is not attainable since an increase in price by an individual firm above P will lead to a fall in the quantity demanded, taken from the demand curve D1 K. Again, the price cannot be reduced below P since each firm knows well in advance that any such move would be followed by the rest of the firms in the industry with a view to maintaining their market shares. Thus, the subjective demand Kd1 cannot be individually taken as an advantage because of the tendency for simultaneous pricing decisions. Therefore, there is a high tendency for pric es to remain rigid at P, with the relevant market demand curve being D1 D2 with a kink at point K. The high degree of substitutability of oligopoly products makes the demand for products to be highly price elastic. Oligopoly in the market describes a situation in which firms are price makers. Product differentiation and supernormal profits are earned both in the short run and long run. Because sellers are few, the decisions of sellers are mutually inter-dependent and they cannot ignore each other because the actions of one will affect others (Kreps, 1990).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pricing and Output Decisions of the Firm The price and the output shall depend on whether the firm operates in either pure oligopoly or differentiated oligopoly. Oligopoly market normally differentiates its products. But this differentiation might either be weak or strong. Pure olig opoly describes the situation where differentiation of the product is weak. Pricing and output in pure oligopoly can be collusive or non-collusive. Collusive oligopoly refers to a situation where there is co-operation among the sellers that is, co-ordination of prices. Collusion can be Formal or Informal. Formal collusive oligopoly refers to a situation where firms come together to protect their interests for instance, cartels such as OPEC. In this case, members enter into a formal agreement by which the market is shared among them. The single decision maker will set the market price and the quantity offered for sale in the industry. There is a central agency which sets the price. The maximized joint profits are distributed among firms based on an agreed formula. Informal collusive oligopoly can arise mainly because of two reasons. One of them is when the cartel may be weak or unable because of legal requirements or some may be some firms do not want to enter into an agreement or lo se their freedom of action completely. Firms may find it mutually beneficial for them not to engage in price competition. When a cartel does not exist then firms will collude by covert gentlemanly agreement or by spontaneous co-ordination designed to avoid the effects of price war. One such means by which firms can agree is by price leadership. One firm sets the price and others follow with or without understanding (Vives, 1999). When this policy is adopted, firms enter into a tacit market-sharing agreement. Price Leadership There are two types of price leadership. One of them is referred to as the by a low-cost firm pricing model. When there is a conflict of interests among Oligopolists arising from cost differentials, the firms can explicitly or implicitly agree on how to share the market in which the low-cost firm sets the price. We can assume that the low cost firm takes the biggest share of the market. Another price leadership model is referred to as the price leadership by a l arge firm. Some Oligopoly markets consist of one large firm and a number of smaller ones. In this case, the larger firm sets the price and allows the smaller firms to sell at that price and then supplies the rest of the quantity.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Oligopoly specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Each smaller firm behaves as if in a purely competitive market where price is given and each firm sells without affecting the price because each will sell. The formula can be given as follows. MC = P = MR = AR Non-collusive oligopoly on the other hand operates in the absence of collusion and in a situation of great uncertainty. In this case, if one firm raises prices, it is likely to lose a substantial proportion of customers to its rivals. They will not raise the prices because they have the interests of charging a price that is lower than that of their rivals. If the firm lowers the price, it would att ract a large proportion of customers. The other firms are likely to retaliate by lowering their prices, either to the same extent or a large extent. The first firm will retaliate by lowering the price even further. As firms would always expect a counter-strategy from rivals, each firm prices and makes decisions that are tactical. This would then lead to a price war. If it goes on, there would come a time when the prices are so low that if one firm lowers the price, the consumers will see no point in changing from their traditional suppliers. Thus, the demand for the product of the individual firm would start by being elastic and it would end by being inelastic. The demand curve for the product of the individual firm thus consists of two parts, the elastic part and the inelastic part. It is said to be â€Å"kinked’ demand curve, as shown below (Samuelson, Marks 2003). Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the firm is on the inelastic part and it raises the price, others will not follow suit. But on this part, prices are so low that it is likely to retain most of its customers. If it raises the prices beyond the kink, it would lose most of its customers to rivals. Hence, the price p will lose most of its customers to rivals. Hence the price p will be the stable price because above it, prices would be unstable. Rising prices means substantial loss of customers and lowering prices may lead to price war. Below p, prices would be considered too low. References Kreps, D. (1990). A Course in Microeconomic Theory. Princeton: Princeton Press. Samuelson, W., Marks, S. (2003). Managerial Economics page (4th ed). New York: Wiley. Vives, X. (1999). Oligopoly pricing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. This research paper on Oligopoly was written and submitted by user Bridget Warren to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Time Travelers Wife Essays

Time Travelers Wife Essays Time Travelers Wife Essay Time Travelers Wife Essay 2012-07410March 15, 2013 ENG 2 G-3RDraft no. 1 The Time Traveler’s Wife (Film) A Reaction Paper Why is love intensified by absence? (Niffenegger, 2003) The Time Travelers Wife is a romantic drama film directed by Robert Schwentke and was based on a novel by Audrey Niffenegger of the same title. The film tells the story of Henry DeTamble (Eric Bana), a librarian who suffers from a genetic disorder that causes him to jump back and forth in time, and Clare Abshire (Rachel McAdams), as they endeavor to live a happy and normal life. In the early 1970s, a six year-old Henry survives a car accident wherein his mother died. The tension before the impact enabled him to travel back two weeks before the accident. He was then transported back into the present and witnessed the death of his mother before him. An older version of him tries to help Henry by explaining that he is indeed a time traveler. Henry finds himself living the past, present, and future at the same time. In 1991, Henry meets for the first time an art student named Clare. Though she is delighted to see him, Henry was not able to recognize her. She later reveals that the future Henry time traveled and met the six year old Clare. They develop a relationship and Henry finally felt permanence in his life. Subsequently, the couple enters a married life which will be teemed with obstacles brought about by Henry’s condition. The film Time Traveler’s Wife employed time travel as one of main character’s flaw and strong point at the same time expressing the love story that attracts most of the women audience. Its title and movie trailer just provides sufficient ideas that will make you think about it and finally watch the film. Considering the fact that it was primarily based on a book, it can be posited that the story was crammed and made to fit in the specific amount of time. This caused the movie to lose its richness which left the supporting characters with little exposure who may have contributed to the audience’s understanding and interpretation and to the story’s further development. Moreover, the film focused too much on the love story of Henry and Clare and ignored the other characters’ involvement and influence on the main characters’ decision as opposed to the book. Critiques aside, the story was very poignant. It provided various themes such as the importance of time, love, family, marriage, sex and reality. Love was expressed and interpreted by the characters in various ways- physical lovemaking, Clare’s patience (or impatience) for waiting Henry from his travels, and sacrifices that each of them made in their pursuit of happiness. It was emphasized that love is an important aspect of life that overcomes and recognizes no obstacles. The film also gives the audience the idea of struggle between life as something that is already written and pre-determined, and the capacity or power of our free will and choices. Sex and racism, to some extent, is depicted in the movie. It shows the importance of physical connection to the intimacy of the main characters. In addition, the character of Eric Bana criticized the Republicans and hunters. Lastly, versions of reality were presented- that of Henry’s and of Clare’s. It gives the audience the impression that reality is subjective and thereby influenced by emotions. Time Traveler’s Wife can be considered as a carpe diem movie. Although it contains a timeline structure that is quite confusing for the viewers and disturbing scenes and language, the film earns the audience awe and tears by the story of two lovers who are victims of the unpredictable fate.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How and When to Use the French Preposition Sur

How and When to Use the French Preposition Sur The French preposition sur, one of the most common in the French language,  usually means on, but it has a few other meanings as well depending on what its used with. Here they are. Location un livre sur la table   a book on the tablesur ma route   on my waysur la photo   in the photographsur le stade /  le marchà ©Ã‚   at the stadium / marketsur la chaussà ©e, le boulevard, lavenue   in the road, boulevard, avenueIl neige sur tout le Canada.   Its snowing all over Canada. Direction tourner sur la gauche   to turn to the leftrevenir sur Paris   to return to Paris Approximate time arriver sur les six heures   to arrive around 6 oclockElle va sur ses 50 ans.   Shes going on 50 (years old).sur une pà ©riode dun an   over a period / the course of a year Proportion/Ratio trois fois sur quatre   three times out of four​un enfant sur cinq   one child in fiveune semaine sur deux   every other week Subject/Topic un article sur les roses   an article on rosesune causerie sur là ©galità ©Ã‚   a talk on/about equality After Some Verbs Followed by an Indirect Object Sur  is also required after certain  French verbs  and phrases that are followed by an  indirect object. Note that there is sometimes no equivalent preposition in English but the French usage is idiomatic. Such verbs and phrase include: acheter quelque chose sur le marchà ©   to buy something at the marketappuyer sur  (le bouton)  Ã‚  to press (the button)appuyer sur  (le mur)  Ã‚  to lean (on the wall)arriver sur  (midi)  Ã‚  to arrive at around (noon)compter sur  Ã‚  to count onconcentrer sur  Ã‚  to concentrate oncopier sur quelquun  Ã‚  to copy from someonecroire quelquun sur parole  Ã‚  to take someones word, to take someone at his worddiriger son attention sur  Ã‚  to direct ones attention todonner sur  Ã‚  to overlook, open ontoà ©crire sur  Ã‚  to write aboutsendormir sur  (un livre, son travail)  Ã‚  to fall asleep (over a book, at work)sà ©tendre sur  Ã‚  to spread out overfermer la porte sur  (vous, lui)  Ã‚  to close the door behind (you, him)interroger quelquun sur quelque chose  Ã‚  to question someone about somethingse jeter sur quelquun  Ã‚  to throw oneself upon someoneloucher sur  Ã‚  to ogleprendre modà ¨le sur quelquun  Ã‚  to model oneself on som eonequestionner quelquun sur quelque chose  Ã‚  to question someone about somethingrà ©flà ©chir sur  Ã‚  to think about, reflect upon rà ©gner sur  Ã‚  to reign overrejeter une faute sur quelquun  Ã‚  to place the blame on someonerester sur la dà ©fensive  Ã‚  to stay on the defensiverester sur ses gardes  Ã‚  to keep ones guard uprevenir sur  (un sujet)  Ã‚  to go back over (a topic)sauter sur une occasion  Ã‚  to jump at an opportunitytirer sur  Ã‚  to shoot attourner sur  (là ©glise, la droite)  Ã‚  to turn (toward the church, right)

Friday, February 14, 2020

What evidence is there that the Iliad was composed before the art of Research Paper

What evidence is there that the Iliad was composed before the art of writing was applied to the composition of poetry - Research Paper Example The two sets of evidence are considered together with the intention of finding a definitive answer to this question. In the introduction to the text of the poem in English G.S. Kirk points out that the Greeks started to use writing around 725 B.C. which was relatively late compared to their neighbours, the Mesopotamians who had used their cuneiform script for some thousand years already. (Kirk, 2008, p. ix). Using items like figure scenes and vases, quotations in other poets, and mention of the Iliad and Odyssey in other surviving writings, Kirk notes that historians have dated the composition of The Iliad been around this time, or possibly as late as 680 B.C,. Archaeological evidence and historic individuals mentioned in the text would suggest that the battles between the Greeks and the Trojans which are described in the poem took place another 600 years before the time of Homer, around 1200 B.C. This means that a very long time had passed before the material came to be worked on by Homer. It is theoretically possible that even older oral versions existed on which Homer perhaps based his work. There is no evidence of this, however, and so older sources have to remain a speculation. It is clear that in the time of Homer, Greek civilization was not heavily dependent on writing. There are some inscriptions from this period but they are very brief. The technical limitations of the early Greek script made it unlikely that Homer could have made much use of it as a writing aid for such a long poem, according to Kirk. Moreover, Kirk points out that the audience for the poem were certainly not readers: â€Å" He (= Homer) composed for people who were essentially non-literate, who listened to poetry as their ancestors had†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Kirk, 2008, p. x) This dating evidence proves that there was plenty of poetry existing in written form before Homer came along. The Epic of Gilgamesh, for example, was written in Sumerian script, and dates from around 2000 B.C., well be fore the Trojan wars. The Iliad was composed in Greek many centuries after this, and so in an absolute sense it is not true to say that it was composed before anyone had used writing for poetry. In a local and Greek sense, however, this is a possibility worth investigation, because the Greeks may indeed have composed, performed, heard,and preserved The Iliad in only oral form. Scholars have carefully studied the surviving text of The Iliad to try and work out if there are clues to its origin in the way it is written. The presence of many formulaic phrases which are repeated again and again is explained as a feature of oral literature: the hexameter form requires that a certain rhythm be maintained, and so these ready-made little phrases are called upon to fill spaces in the poetic line in a predictable way. An example of this is the way the named characters in the epic have a little descriptive phrase attached to them such as â€Å"Agamemnon, Atreus’ son† (Book 1, p. 1 ) which is varied as â€Å"The son of Atreus,/ ruler of the great plain, Agamemnon†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Book 1, p. 3) or â€Å"†¦ son of Atreus, tamer of horses (Book 2, p. 18). These epithets add interest to the story because the heroes are mentioned often, and it could become even more repetitive if the simple names were used without these variations. Finnegan explains the so-called â€Å"Homeric epithet† as a structural device: â€Å"The poet had at his disposal this series of traditional patterns built up over