Friday, August 21, 2020

Exercises for Different Specific Muscle Groups

Muscles, along with our bones, shape a human’s body system. Muscle causes movements by applying power. It is partitioned into four muscle bunches which are the head and neck muscles, trunk muscles, furthest point and lower limit muscles. An even exercise program assists with keeping up muscle quality and tone.Head and neck muscles move our head and shoulders in this manner legitimate exercise is expected to unwind and keep up the normal muscle support. One can do the isometric front and back neck practice wherein the individual will sit and will tenderly push their head in reverse without bowing the neck to create neck muscle. Attempt to evade any more head developments as you oppose the push. In the wake of doing this for 16 tallies, take a shot at pushing from the posterior of your head (Miller).Trunk muscles can acquire quality from strength ball works out.  You can do full hunch down the security ball by promptly expanding legs and standing here and there while squeezing hands up over the head to keep wrists over elbows and arms moving corresponding to your body. Do this for 20 checks and afterward for another set.Another practice for your trunk is the steadiness ball crunch wherein first you will sit upstanding in the soundness ball with feet solidly on the floor. Stroll forward permitting the soundness ball to move until it is put on to your mid-back part. Spot your hands in your chest and agreement your midsection and raise your shoulders up. It resembles having sit-ups while dealing with your neck not to be stressed by keeping the head at the nonpartisan position. Do this in 20 redundancies for 3 sets (Sports Fitness Advisor).Upper furthest point/appendage muscles incorporate shoulder, lower arm, down to finger muscles. Endeavor to complete 12-15 redundancies push-ups/triceps push-ups. From that point onward, hold free loads with your palms looking up, remain with feet hip-width separated, mid-region tight. Lift the loads, turn the palms face o ut, at that point do backward movement. Rehash for 12-15 redundancies (MedicineNet).To improve your lower limit/appendage muscles, do lower leg practices by sitting erectly with your soles against the base of a divider, keeping your legs straight. Spot your hands on the floor behind you for help. Flex your feet to bringing your toes toward the shins. Rehash for multiple times to extend and get your leg’s regular support. Last, to improve your hamstrings lie on your back with one knee twisted and its foot on the floor.Extend the other leg on the floor with foot twisted. Rests your hands on your side and afterward expand your straight leg noticeable all around shaping as near 90 degrees as for your chest area. At that point bring down your leg to the floor rehashing for multiple times. Attempt to speed up with every redundancy. Hold your advantage noticeable all around on the last reiteration. Run or lively stroll for 2 minutes in the wake of finishing all the activities.

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

The Internet of Things

The Internet of Things What do wearable tech, smart homes, smart cities, and intelligent transportation systems all have in common? They are current applications of a widespread, worldwide technological development known as the Internet of Things (IoT). This phenomenon promises to make our wireless world even more prevalent in our daily lives than it is now.Internet of Things is more than just a fad, or a short-term trend. We are wired to the gills already, and demand for wireless devices and technologies continues to grow every year. In 2012, nearly 700 million new smartphones shipped. In 2013, that number was 1 billion, a number expected to grow by 200 million in 2014, and by another 700 million by 2018, according to market research firm International Data Corporation. And that’s just smartphones â€" not tablets or PCs, let alone routers, headsets or keyboards. When you add to this list the market sizes for common wireless devices like garage door openers, smart watches, remote heart rate monitors, vid eo game consoles, baby monitors, walkie talkies, GPS devices…you began to get the picture: wireless already dominates â€" and continues to dominate â€" our lives. Moreover, wireless connectivity is now becoming standard in a rapidly growing subset of new products across the globe. Some experts predict that by 2025, there will be a total of 1 trillion networked devices worldwide in the consumer and industrial sectors. Internet of Things is not just the latest buzzword: it is where our world is heading. © | a-imageIn this article, we will discuss: 1) the definition of IoT, 2) the history of IoT, 3) benefits of IoT, 4) implications of IoT, 5) trends in IoT, 6) current applications of IoT, and 7) future applications of IoT.DEFINITION OF IOTFundamentally, the Internet of Things (IoT) is the movement to connect physical things (objects, especially those objects that have not been wired historically) to the Internet and to each other through wireless technologies. Objects include everything from coffeepots to municipal building statues. The functionality of the newly wired objects, based on the internet and capabilities of the IoT firm, varies greatly.Beyond this basic definition lies the idea that, eventually, once a critical mass of objects are connected (their underlying technologies having been refined and standardized), all of the connected systems, though disparate perhaps in function, origin, and design, will communicate with each other and work in tandem to form a seamless, coherent experience for the average consumer. © Wikimedia commons | WilgengebroedFor example, your home automatically locks your front door behind you and unlocks your car and garage door before you get there. Once inside, your car automatically plays music to suit the mood its sensors have predicted you are in (based on real-time vital sign monitoring), and then drives you to the gym. Once in the gym, the weight machines automatically adjust their loads to your strength level.This is the promise of Internet of Things.   HISTORY OF IOTOf course, the beginnings of IoT have their ultimate origins in the beginnings of the Internet in 1989. Wireless connectivity also plays an important role, and the development of GPS in 1998, the first Internet connected cellphone in 1999, and the commercial availability of Wi-Fi in 2000, should be noted. While many science fiction authors, from Isaac Asimov to Bruce Sterling, have depicted Internet of Things in their works (in many cases, decades ago), the term itself was coined by Kevin Ashton, a British technologist, in 1999.BENEFITS OF IOTIoT connectivity, to the consumer, would mean a seamless experience, integrating all devices and allowing the automation of routine tasks. This would result in considerable time savings and convenience. Moreover, it could also save lives: home health monitoring technologies could get medical assistance to a person suffering a sudden medical emergency, or remotely keep track of children on field trips.In a business context, an increase in the number of wireless devices (deployed strategically, of course) could increase productivity and efficiency. Already, many retail and service establishments use wireless headsets to communicate, and other sensors to monitor inventory levels. However, Internet of Things can be leveraged on a deeper, more fundamental level, to enhance operations. Some firms have begun to place sensors on everything to monitor and analyze internal operations in granular detail; for example, a GE ceramic plant’s managem ent placed sensors on every component of the manufacturing process and learned, through a sensor on the mixer, at what point the ceramics mixture was optimized for best results. Firms also will have a much larger pool of so-called Big Data from consumers from IoT, which could be invaluable with the proper internal focus on analytics and data warehousing. © Flickr | PEOSoldierIn a medical context, seamless integration of a clinician’s medical and healthcare tools, as well as internal hospital systems, would likely greatly improve the delivery of healthcare to patients. In a military context, IoT might yield more effective enemy targeting, fewer overall casualties, and shorter military conflicts. The U.S. military, among others, is already integrating wearables into its gear, such as the Aviation Warrior, a Raytheon-developed wearables system comprised of a helmet, wrist display and portable computing device, which provide soldiers with real-time battlefield intelligence.One day, science fiction writers have often posited, IoT, with its increasing connectivity, may even yield singularity the point at which robot intelligence will outstrip human intelligence. However, this is unlikely. Internet of Things, though, may improve our understanding of human and robot learning to such an extent that we make real breakthroughs in the develop ment of artificial intelligence.The Internet of Things Meets Big Data TRENDS IN IOT © Flickr | David BerkowitzThe market for IoT is nearly as fragmented as the market for things. Some manufacturers have decided to develop their own internal electronic systems to apply to their products, usually compatible with one or more popular operating systems (Android OS, Windows OS or iOS). Others have insourced or outsourced the wireless technology component of their products to major software firms. Still, others have developed their own electronics ecosystem, with proprietary software and wireless standards. In addition, some software firms have begun to purchase promising connected products and integrate their operating systems in them (e.g. Googles recent purchase of the Nest Learning Thermostat). Trends in IoT include the continued arrival of new entrants, and selective acquisition of promising firms by large corporations.Standardization is a key challenge of Internet of Things, but one that some firms are trying to address. Without seamless integration between disparat e products, consumer confusion will impede adoption. And standardization demands some level of collaboration among competing firms is a tall order, even when long-term profits will likely outpace short-term gains.  CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF THE IOTThough it may take us decades or longer to be fully wired, we do not have to wait that long to see Internet of Things in action. Many current IoT applications present promising clues as to what a fully wired future would look like, including:  Smart citiesSmart cities, in practice, are cities that are fully wired. But urban planners, architects, government officials, companies like IBM, Siemens, Microsoft, Intel, and Cisco, and futurists would love to see the day when all of a citys disparate infrastructure systems could be connected to each other, centrally controlled, and work in tandem. Centralized systems might include traffic systems, sewers, publicly owned energy firms, water purification and conservation, and more. Imagine a day when a mayor could ration water in an area where a flood occurs, as well as divert the flow of traffic away from the occurrence by changing the areas traffic signals. Or a smart city might optimize individual power consumption with its overall consumption of electric, hydroelectric, solar, and other forms of energy.  Medical monitoring devicesMost medical monitoring devices these days are wireless, and allow doctors to monitor the vital signs of patients remotely. This is tremendously beneficial in remote and rural areas where hospitals and healthcare facilities are scarce. Other types of medical monitoring devices are designed to provide emergency notifications when a person is suffering a medical emergency. Integration of these technologies with one’s electronic medical record and other in-hospital wireless technologies can not only improve hospital/healthcare efficiency, but also save lives.  Smart homesSmart homes centralize the control of all electrical devices, appliances, and wi relessly connected objects in a residence, allowing users to automate their functions from a single input device. Such a system might allow you to use you laptop to schedule your TiVo to record at a specified hour; turn on your security system, thermostat, and washer, dim your lighting, and turn off your air conditioner. Current smart homes are created either from expensive custom installed packages, or less expensive wireless hubs for the do-it-yourself. Full connectivity is an ideal difficult to achieve because of varied technical standards for disparate household implements. However, the market is rapidly growing and, as per market research firm  Juniper Research, it will reach $71 billion by 2018.Wearable techWearable technology is the integration of wireless technology with clothing, jewelry, and accessories. Consumer wearables are largely concentrated in the fitness and healthcare monitoring markets, taking the form of wristwatches, gloves, and even tattoos. While Juniper Rese arch predicts the market will grow to $19 billion by 2018, the market potential for wearables is unclear as the market is highly fragmented and there is consumer hesitation about both the social ramifications of having them and the fundamental need for them. Military and medical applications, which currently include exoskeletons for soldiers and paraplegics respectively, will likely influence further wearables innovations in the future.  OtherOther applications include environmental monitoring systems â€" deployed especially in disaster prone areas; infrastructure management systems â€" which can monitor the stability of structures; energy management systems â€" designed to conserve energy, and monitor energy consumption; and intelligent transportation systems â€" which describe systems with functions ranging from fleet management to traffic control.What Is the Internet of Things? | Mashable Explains FUTURE APPLICATIONS   OF IOT The future of Internet of Things will be shaped more b y the ever-evolving utility of the Internet, then by individual product development challenges. For better or worse, humanity is moving towards an exponentially increasingly wired world. Driven by convenience, entertainment, or necessity, we keep adhering and integrating wireless technology into everything. Whether this increasing connectivity eventually coheres into a seamless symphony of convenience, access, and data, or falls, flat, one thing is for certain. The growing markets of IoT applications like smart homes and wearable tech will continue to drive IoT forward (towards a market value of $6.2 trillion by 2025 according to McKinsey Global Institute, and beyond). Future applications of IoT might include:Smart wristwatches that provide directions to the nearest fire extinguisher in case of a fire;Pens that “remember” and store a consumer’s hand motions, thus recording what it has written;Implanted organs that can notify hospitals when they begin to fail;Homes that “lear n” and “adapt” to their owner’s needs by activating or deactivating residential devices based on its predictions of the owner’s behavior;Cars that automatically reduce energy as they “sense” approaching gas stations; orWater conservation systems that automatically conserve water based on weather predictions.The Internet of Things: Dr. John Barrett at TEDxCIT IMPLICATIONS OF IOTOf course, a world all the way wired is fundamentally different from our partially wired world of today. Full Internet of Things will have significant implications for:  SecurityTremendous security implications exist for IoT. Recent studies by IT firm Symantec and Hewlett-Packard uncovered multiple vulnerabilities in popular wearables and smart home devices, respectively. The severely fragmented market for IoT products yields players for whom IT security measures are not a core competency. The linking of disparate hardware products creates its own security issues. Moreover, the more connected dev ices containing personal information, the more risk the consumer assumes. Open standards must be adopted by hardware manufacturers that incorporate shared communication and security software protocols. Further, though despite nearly 45 years of cybercrime, consumers have often avoided taking their own cyber security seriously, IoT’s applications like smart homes, make this of more importance than ever before. No longer can consumers use passwords like 1234, because a criminal’s illegal access of a consumer account will no longer just mean monetary theft. It could mean burglary â€" or worse.Ethics © Flickr | Ted EytanPrivacy is a major IoT issue, particularly concerning applications that record audio or video content. Some devices, such as the Google Glass, have the capability of surreptitious recording. This brings to the fore a number of ethical issues, such as whether businesses should ban them, whether such devices should be used by law enforcement in surveillance efforts, and just how much individuals can or should record. Intellectual property issues are brought front and center as well. How does one stop and/or deter individuals from pirating movies or taking a picture of a copyrighted image with a wearable?These are far from the only ethical issues that Internet of Things raises. Are businesses that are collecting data about consumer online activity using it ethically? Is a firm, monitoring a consumer’s preferences and sending coupons for the kinds of unhealthy foods the consumer buys, colluding in, and/or liable for the consumer’s poor health? Will IoT be equally accessible to all, and what ramifications are there for those without access? Will those dominant IoT firms adhere to network neutrality? The list is broad and far-reaching, and will only grow as IoT does.RegulationRegulatory authorities and legislators must address most of the aforementioned questions. For the most part, legislation and law enforcement training have not kept pace with IoT or its major trends. A notable example involves a Google Glass user issued a ticket in California for wearing the device while driving. The officer in the case cited a vehicle code that did not apply, and the police department noted that there is no law that applies to Google Glass. It is critical that legislators, regulators, and law enforcement keep abreast of IoT, as it will spawn more and more products that present real legal and ethical challenges.  OtherAs connectivity increases, energy consumption will become a key issue. Now, smart technologies will help reduce overall energy consumption, automatically conserving energy when necessary. Nevertheless, more things will be connected, and, potentially, more people will have access to Internet of Things, then the wireless world of the PC. Whether IoT’s reduction in energy consumption can offset the increase in energy consumption stemming from increased usage, remains to be seen.Data storage will also be a key issue for IoT firms storing the data and the businesses collecting it. Further, for businesses, the fragmented nature of Internet of Things data could be a nightmare, as IT departments will have to warehouse it within internal enterprise databases that are fundamental different. Image credit:  Wikimedia commons | Wilgengebroed under Attribution 2.0 Generic.  Flickr | PEOSoldier under Attribution 2.0 Generic, Flickr | David Berkowitz under Attribution 2.0 Generic, Flickr | Ted Eytan under Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Herbal Anti Cancer Medicine The Vinca Alkaloids Isolated...

The first herbal anti-cancer medicine was the vinca alkaloids isolated from the Madagascar periwinkle plant, Catharanthus roseus. Extracts from this plant was found to have therapeutic anti-tumour activity and clinically began being used as Vinblastine and Vincristine in 1960. [2] The mechanism of Vinca Alkaloids is the inhibition of microtubules. The drug prevents the alignment of daughter chromosomes by depolymerizing the tubulin molecules inhibiting the formation of spindle fibres ultimately causing mitosis arrest and killing dividing cells. [3] This class of drug is at danger due to resistance mechanisms via the over expression of multi-drug associated p-glycoprotein which acts as an efflux pump to remove the drug out of the cell. [5] Resistance has led to the development of second generation Vinca Alkoids – Vinorelbine and Vinflunine. these drugs disrupt microtubule formation by alternate methods compared to the older generation hence prolonging multi-drug resistance and anti-angiogenesis which prevents new blood vessels forming to the tumour. From clinical studies Vinorelbine is approved for treatment of Non-small cell lung cancer, (Gregory et al. 2000) over 15 trials with Vinorelbine as monotherapy has produced an overall response rate of 23.6% increasing patient’s survival. A phase 3 trial from an Italian study in 1999 (The Elderly Lung Cancer, Vinorelbine) found that ‘monotherapy vinorelbine seemed reasonable in the elderly whom polychemotherapy is not possible’.Show MoreRelatedHerbal medicin e is the traditional medical practice and it’s an important part of medicine to this1200 Words   |  5 PagesHerbal medicine is the traditional medical practice and it’s an important part of medicine to this day. To treat different ailments there are various indigenous systems such as Siddha, Ayurveda, Unani and Allopathy use differnt plant species1. Allopathic medicine is a system of medicine that focuses primarily on reacting disease rather than on promoting health. The use of herbal medicine is popular due to toxicity and side effects of allopathic medicines. Cancer is presently responsible for about

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Means Whereby IT Managers as Purchasing Agents...

Table of Contents Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...........4 Decision Ethics The Means Whereby IT Managers as Purchasing Agents Participate in Fraudulent Activities †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦..†¦...5 Recommendations For Measures or Actions That Chief Information Officers (CIOs) or Chief Technology Officers (CTOs) Might Mandate to Reduce Fraud and Other Unethical Practices While Protecting the Reputation of the Organization and the Infrastructures of Computer Systems †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦.7 How These Measures Would be Useful and Reduce the Amount of Fraudulent Activities..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦......†¦........9 Conclusion ..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦........10 References †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦........11 Introduction It is challenging to acquire strategic information technology (IT) alliances properly. Devoid of appropriate outsourcing methods, the threat of occupational fraud escalates (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners [ACFE], 2006). Nevertheless, companies employ outsourcing for several strategic motivations (Bass, 2013). Outsourcing assists businesses to concentrate on core-competencies, increase performance, diminish capital investment expenses, and realize increased revenues (Ghodeswar Vaidyanathan, 2008). Any form of fraud or corruption in the selection or management of outsourcing arrangements is inefficacious (ACFE, 2006). Corruption schemes such as conflicts of interest,Show MoreRelatedInformation Technology Manager Acting As A Purchasing Agent1648 Words   |  7 PagesThe purpose of the study was to identify the means whereby a given organization’s Information Technology manager acting as a purchasing agent, participates in fraudulent activities, including obtainin g kickbacks from vendors. 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Published by John Wiley Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through paymentRead MoreBanking Laws and Jurisprudence Reviewer41247 Words   |  165 Pagesreach to the people the credit facilities at reasonable cost †¢ Includes: (1) savings and mortgage bank, (2) stock savings and loan associations and (3) private development banks †¢ Thrift Banks Act (RA 7906) 1. Negligence of Manager – employer is liable to the acts of the manager 2. Negligence of officer – general rule: tortious acts of officers within their scope of employment shall make banks liable 3. 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Leadership Principle of Jesus Free Essays

Principles of Leadership What is leadership? Leadership is the ability to obtain followers. Leadership is influence. You are a leader to the extent that people are following you. We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership Principle of Jesus or any similar topic only for you Order Now Why is leadership important? Leadership is important because it influences the destiny of people. Leadership also determines, to a large extent, what a group of people will be able to achieve. Leadership moves people towards common goals, principles and values. Good leadership enables people to work together well, and realize their potential. Poor leadership frustrates both people and projects. Poor leadership results in people being hurt. Good leadership results in strong people and excellent results. These comments apply to every area of life and human endeavour. Who Can be a Leader? Anyone who can act can be a leader – however, some have greater leadership potential than others essay writer pay. Not everyone can be a great leader, but everyone can be a better leader. The multiplication of leadership is the key to the multiplication of a movement. The communists knew this, and had as a motto, â€Å"Every communist a leader†. People have different personality types and styles of relating. Being a leader does not depend on having a particular personality type or style of relating. Neither does leadership exclusively depend on having a particular technical ability or giftedness. A good leader without certain skills or gifts can lead people possessing those abilities. A great leader can gather around them others who are very gifted and capable in particular areas. Both men and women can lead, although it is a fact that there are more male leaders in the world than female, and this will probably continue into the next century also. On the other hand, for every man that ever was, there was a mother, and the leadership influence of mothers over their own children can hardly be over-estimated. How Does Leadership Happen? Leadership happens in two ways. The most common way is that a faithful follower is promoted to a greater position of influence within an organisation, and thereby takes responsibility to lead people in their group or division. The other way leadership happens is when an individual gets passionately interested in doing something, starts doing it alone, and finds others who want to join in. A leader must lead. There is no leadership without action. There must be both action and communication. What Qualities make a Better Leader? A good leader leads by example. The greatest authority in leadership is reserved for those who have have done themselves the things they seek to motivate others to do. A positive attitude is very important. Leadership is not possible without advocating something. Criticism of others behind their backs is not leadership. A leader must show a better way, mostly by example. People what to be part of a winning team. A good leader must be positive even in the face of setbacks, so that people will not be discouraged and give up. This requires the quality of steadfastness and endurance. A good leader is self-disciplined. A good leader can sacrifice his or her present comfort for future benefits, and in this way inspires others to do the same. A good leader manages his or her time well. A good leader knows and studies people. A good leader is a good listener, and also observes the body language and non-verbal communication of others. A good leader waits before speaking, and does not promise quickly. A good leader is in touch with the needs, hopes, aspirations and desires of others. A good leader considers others, and seeks to do things that benefit everyone involved. A good leader is prepared to change and skilled in preparing others to embrace change. A good leader encourages dissatisfied people in the organisation to work together to find a solution. A good leader is willing to learn from others. A good leader also invests considerable time in self-education – by reading books, listening to tapes or attending seminars. A good leader has personal integrity and works hard to develop this quality. Integrity means keeping one’s word, and dealing truly with others. People do not like being let down by the broken promises of those in authority over them. A good leader will avoid resorting to tactics of manipulation. A good leader is highly motivated to achieve results, and therefore diligent. A good leader nevertheless is patient and slow to anger. A good leader is faithful to others and inspires loyalty and team spirit in his or her followers. A good leader enjoys other people and doesn’t overly dwell on their weaknesses. A good leader invests in others and empowers others to achieve and to become leaders themselves, without being threatened. A good leader seeks models the attitude and practice of service towards others. Biblical Examples of Leadership Jesus Christ modelled all of the above characteristics. In seeking to lead people to God the Father, Jesus himself demonstrated the power of a relationship with God through prayer. He modelled faith for his disciples to observe, showing to them and later declaring to them the power of faith (see Mark 11:22-24). Jesus modelled love, self-discipline, integrity and righteousness. Not even his enemies could convict him of sin. They could only point out where he violated their own traditions and interpretations – such as his healing of people on the Sabbath. Jesus ultimately gave His life for his followers. The great miracle was that He got in back through his resurrection from the dead. Jesus was positive and cheerful. He said to his disciples, â€Å"that my joy may be in you, and your joy may be complete†. Even though he had many things to correct, he did so in a wise way. Jesus believed that his work would be accomplished, and entrusted part of it to his disciples, whom he trained. Later he left his disciples the task of reaching the world. Jesus was self-disciplined. He often prayed through the night. Once He fasted forty days. All these things were preparation for His ministry. Jesus could perceive the inner thoughts of others, even his enemies. He knew things about his disciples, even beyond what a man could know through the power of observation alone. Jesus did not waste His words. Jesus gave himself to serve the needs of the people by healing their sick, feeding them when they were hungry, giving them a true hope concerning the kingdom of God, and setting them free from evil, sin and demons by the power of His Word and the Holy Spirit. Jesus made disciples and developed others who could continue His ministry after He left the earth. Jesus demonstrated both nobility and compassion in his dealings with people. Multitudes followed him, yet he invested in relatively few so that the quality of his mission could continue for longer. Jesus demonstrated a humility and servant attitude that is unparalleled, considering his divine origin. Many other things could be pointed out from the life of Jesus that illustrate leadership. It is true that Jesus’ style of leadership was and is very different to much of the leadership of today. Yet His life has produced enduring moral results which have lifted so many to a better life and some to life eternal. How to cite Leadership Principle of Jesus, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020


Oligopoly is a type of market structure that has few companies but with huge capital bases. ‘Few firms’ in this case are taken to mean that the activities of one firm are largely influenced by the activities of the rest of the firms in the industry. In other words, interdependence is eminent. Should one firm, for instance, decide to change the price or make any other fundamental decision, others will follow suit.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Oligopoly specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such examples would include the print media such as the Newspaper Industry. All companies would decide to charge same prices not because of their individual choices but because of the demands of the market. Readership (sales) in this case will depend on factors other than the price, such as the efficiency of distribution channels (accessibility), quality of the content, subscription and publicity. These facto rs are popular referred to as non- price aspects of competition. Cost Revenue Equilibrium in Oligopoly Any rational firm in an oligopolistic market cannot increase the price above P because it knows very well (perfect knowledge) that it would be pricing itself out of the market, since other firms in the industry will most probably keep their prices stable at P and therefore having a high relative demand. The objective demand is represented by d2. K is not attainable since an increase in price by an individual firm above P will lead to a fall in the quantity demanded, taken from the demand curve D1 K. Again, the price cannot be reduced below P since each firm knows well in advance that any such move would be followed by the rest of the firms in the industry with a view to maintaining their market shares. Thus, the subjective demand Kd1 cannot be individually taken as an advantage because of the tendency for simultaneous pricing decisions. Therefore, there is a high tendency for pric es to remain rigid at P, with the relevant market demand curve being D1 D2 with a kink at point K. The high degree of substitutability of oligopoly products makes the demand for products to be highly price elastic. Oligopoly in the market describes a situation in which firms are price makers. Product differentiation and supernormal profits are earned both in the short run and long run. Because sellers are few, the decisions of sellers are mutually inter-dependent and they cannot ignore each other because the actions of one will affect others (Kreps, 1990).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pricing and Output Decisions of the Firm The price and the output shall depend on whether the firm operates in either pure oligopoly or differentiated oligopoly. Oligopoly market normally differentiates its products. But this differentiation might either be weak or strong. Pure olig opoly describes the situation where differentiation of the product is weak. Pricing and output in pure oligopoly can be collusive or non-collusive. Collusive oligopoly refers to a situation where there is co-operation among the sellers that is, co-ordination of prices. Collusion can be Formal or Informal. Formal collusive oligopoly refers to a situation where firms come together to protect their interests for instance, cartels such as OPEC. In this case, members enter into a formal agreement by which the market is shared among them. The single decision maker will set the market price and the quantity offered for sale in the industry. There is a central agency which sets the price. The maximized joint profits are distributed among firms based on an agreed formula. Informal collusive oligopoly can arise mainly because of two reasons. One of them is when the cartel may be weak or unable because of legal requirements or some may be some firms do not want to enter into an agreement or lo se their freedom of action completely. Firms may find it mutually beneficial for them not to engage in price competition. When a cartel does not exist then firms will collude by covert gentlemanly agreement or by spontaneous co-ordination designed to avoid the effects of price war. One such means by which firms can agree is by price leadership. One firm sets the price and others follow with or without understanding (Vives, 1999). When this policy is adopted, firms enter into a tacit market-sharing agreement. Price Leadership There are two types of price leadership. One of them is referred to as the by a low-cost firm pricing model. When there is a conflict of interests among Oligopolists arising from cost differentials, the firms can explicitly or implicitly agree on how to share the market in which the low-cost firm sets the price. We can assume that the low cost firm takes the biggest share of the market. Another price leadership model is referred to as the price leadership by a l arge firm. Some Oligopoly markets consist of one large firm and a number of smaller ones. In this case, the larger firm sets the price and allows the smaller firms to sell at that price and then supplies the rest of the quantity.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Oligopoly specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Each smaller firm behaves as if in a purely competitive market where price is given and each firm sells without affecting the price because each will sell. The formula can be given as follows. MC = P = MR = AR Non-collusive oligopoly on the other hand operates in the absence of collusion and in a situation of great uncertainty. In this case, if one firm raises prices, it is likely to lose a substantial proportion of customers to its rivals. They will not raise the prices because they have the interests of charging a price that is lower than that of their rivals. If the firm lowers the price, it would att ract a large proportion of customers. The other firms are likely to retaliate by lowering their prices, either to the same extent or a large extent. The first firm will retaliate by lowering the price even further. As firms would always expect a counter-strategy from rivals, each firm prices and makes decisions that are tactical. This would then lead to a price war. If it goes on, there would come a time when the prices are so low that if one firm lowers the price, the consumers will see no point in changing from their traditional suppliers. Thus, the demand for the product of the individual firm would start by being elastic and it would end by being inelastic. The demand curve for the product of the individual firm thus consists of two parts, the elastic part and the inelastic part. It is said to be â€Å"kinked’ demand curve, as shown below (Samuelson, Marks 2003). Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the firm is on the inelastic part and it raises the price, others will not follow suit. But on this part, prices are so low that it is likely to retain most of its customers. If it raises the prices beyond the kink, it would lose most of its customers to rivals. Hence, the price p will lose most of its customers to rivals. Hence the price p will be the stable price because above it, prices would be unstable. Rising prices means substantial loss of customers and lowering prices may lead to price war. Below p, prices would be considered too low. References Kreps, D. (1990). A Course in Microeconomic Theory. Princeton: Princeton Press. Samuelson, W., Marks, S. (2003). Managerial Economics page (4th ed). New York: Wiley. Vives, X. (1999). Oligopoly pricing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. This research paper on Oligopoly was written and submitted by user Bridget Warren to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.